Wall-E movie After today, we will be moving on to "What's wrong with the 21st Century?" After reading Ender's Game and Fahrenheit 451, we can see that their way of thinking is very detrimental to their society.
Wall-E movie Start at 2:00 Around 39:10 we start to notice all the technology. Pause: ·What issues does too much technology cause on our generation? ·Think back to Fahrenheit 451…what issues were caused by too much technology and not enough individuality and imagination? ·Wall-E takes technology and 21st century issues to the extreme. What do you think the message or theme is?
We will answering the question “What is wrong with the 21st century” over the next few weeks, and we will be gathering an abundance of non-fiction pieces of evidence to help build an argument. Wall-E can definitely get you started in this line of thinking!
Debrief on Fahrenheit 451 * Denham's Dentifrice/Lily in the field * What is Bradbury's real message? Why are books so important to us? To society? * Phoenix symbolism * What kinds of things can we get from reading a book?
Today we looked at different billboards, commercials, and advertisements and identifies the implied messages, audience, and rhetorical appeals. Then we reviewed fallacies and identified them in different videos.
Logical Fallacy Notes:
TESTIMONIAL: A fallacy in which support for a standpoint or product is provided by a well-known or respected figure (e.g. a star athlete or entertainer) who is not an expert and who was probably well paid to make the endorsement (e.g., “Olympic gold-medal pole-vaulter Fulano de Tal uses Quick Flush Internet-shouldn't you?"). Also includes other false, meaningless or paid means of associating oneself or one’s product with the ethos of a famous person or event. This is a corrupted argument from ethos. Professionals can also be used.
HASTY/GLITTERING GENERALIZATION:a conclusion formed without evidence, often the product of an emotional reaction; an over-reaction to one occurrence that grafted onto the entire group. It is the reverse of the logic used in a stereotype — a person makes a hasty generalization when he implies that all things in one group must share the traits of this one individual from the group.
example: Pit Bulls are actually gentle, sweet dogs. My next door neighbor has one and his dog loves to romp and play with all the kids in the neighborhood!
LOADED WORDS/LANGUAGE: diction (word choice) that carries emotional charge. Loaded language usually contains words with strong positive or negative connotations that unfairly frame words into limited or biased contexts. The words you choose should clarify the truth of a situation, not misdirect your audience by unfairly describing or biasing the audience’s interpretations.
example: A Bush basher says: “That silly creature can’t think his way out of a paper bag, let alone run the country.”
SLIPPERY SLOPE: (sometimes called a snowball argument or domino theory) suggests that if one step or action is taken it will invariably lead to similar steps or actions, the end results of which are negative or undesirable. A slippery slope always assume a chain reaction of cause-effect events which result in some eventual dire outcome.
example: If I let one student interrupt my lecture with a question, then I'll have to let others and, before long, there won't be any time left for my lecture. (If you give a mouse a cookie...)
BANDWAGON: "everyone is doing it"; concluding that an idea has merit simply because many people believe it or practice it. (e.g., Most people believe in a god; therefore, it must prove true.) Simply because many people may believe something says nothing about the fact of that something. For example many people during the Black plague believed that demons caused disease. The number of believers say nothing at all about the cause of disease.
NAME CALLING or AD HOMINEM: An attack, or an insult, on the person, rather than directly addressing the person's reasons. Name calling is a form of this fallacy. This is one of the devices that make us form a judgment without first examining the evidence on which it should be based. Here the propagandist appeals to our hate and fear by giving "bad names" to those individuals, groups, nations, races, policies, practices, beliefs, and ideals that he would have us condemn and reject. A fan argued that Coach did not have a winning season because he was stupid.
PLAIN FOLKS:is a device used by politicians, labor leaders, business executives, and even by ministers and teachers to win our confidence by appearing to be people like ourselves - "just plain folks," "just an ole country boy/gal," "just an American citizen."
SNOB APPEAL: the fallacy of attempting to prove a conclusion by appealing to what an elite or a select few (but not necessarily an authority) in a society thinks or believes
What is Pathos? Appeal to emotion Remember: Pathos sounds likepathetic, sympathy, empathy
What is Logos? An appeal to logic Remember: Logos sounds like logic
What is Ethos? An appeal to someone's credibility Remember: Ethos sounds like ethics (reputation)
The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's. The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion, appeals, into three categories--Ethos, Pathos, Logos.
Ethos (Credibility), or ethical appeal, means convincing by the character of the author. We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.
Pathos (Emotional) means persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. We can look at texts ranging from classic essays to contemporary advertisements to see how pathos, emotional appeals, are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument.
Logos(Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning. This will be the most important technique we will study, and Aristotle's favorite. We'll look at deductive and inductive reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive reason to back up your claims. Giving reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. We'll study the types of support you can use to substantiate your thesis, and look at some of the common logical fallacies, in order to avoid them in your writing.
Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal.
Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer's reputation as it exists independently from the message--his or her expertise in the field, his or her previous record or integrity, and so forth. The impact of ethos is often called the argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.'
Pathos (Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') is often associated with emotional appeal. But a better equivalent might be 'appeal to the audience's sympathies and imagination.' An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels. In this sense, pathos evokes a meaning implicit in the verb 'to suffer'--to feel pain imaginatively.... Perhaps the most common way of conveying a pathetic appeal is through narrative or story, which can turn the abstractions of logic into something palpable and present. The values, beliefs, and understandings of the writer are implicit in the story and conveyed imaginatively to the reader. Pathos thus refers to both the emotional and the imaginative impact of the message on an audience, the power with which the writer's message moves the audience to decision or action.